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PROCEEDINGS OF THE EMAS '95 EUROPEAN WORKSHOP
"Microbeam and nanobeam analysis"
4th European Workshop in St. Malo, France
Mikrochimica Acta, Supplement 13, 643 p. (1996)
Edited by: D. Benoit, J.F. Bresse, L. Van’t dack, H. Werner and J. Wernisch
This supplement of Mikrochimica Acta contains selected papers from the Fourth Workshop of the European Microanalysis Society (EMAS) on "Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis" which took place in May 1995 in Saint Malo (France).
For this meeting, EMAS chose to highlight the following topics: MonteCarlo simulations, transport calculations and use of soft Xrays for electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), detection of small quantities using different techniques: synchrotron radiation Xray fluorescence, particle induced Xray emission (PIXE), cathodoluminescence microscopy (CL). Two new kinds of instrumental techniques were also presented: atomic probe and scanning probe microscopy (STM).
The aim of the conference is to give introductory lectures corresponding to the topics of the meeting and to have contributions in the form of poster sessions. More than 80 posters were presented. Most of them gave a short oral presentation. The poster subjects were related to the use of microanalytical techniques: EPMA with wavelength dispersive spectrometry (WDS) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), Auger electron spectrometry (AES), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), scanning electron microscopy and other topographical methods like scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) or atomic force microscopy (AFM). The field of applications is very broad: metallurgy, mineralogy, semiconductor, ceramic, glass, composite, polymer and biological material.
The authors originate from almost all European countries, including eastern European ones and Russia. One invited lecture was given by an USA speaker.
This issue contains the full texts of the ten introductory lectures and 50 brief articles. These articles are the condensed scientific information of the poster sessions. They were subjected to peerreview according to the usual procedure and some of them were rejected. We hope that these contributions to the field of microbeam techniques will be found to be useful.
Invited speakers
Monte Carlo simulation techniques for quantitative Xray microanalysis. 
L. Reimer 
1

Transport equation approach to electron microbeam analysis: fundamentals and applications. 
W.S.M. Werner 
13 
Use of soft Xrays in microanalysis. 
J. L. Pouchou 
39 
Intensity measurement of wavelength dispersive Xray emission bands: applications to the soft Xray region. 
G. Rémond, C. Gilles, M. Fialin, O. Rouer, R. Marinenko, R. Myklebust and D. Newbury 
61 
Synchrotron radiation induced Xray microfluorescence analysis. 
K. Janssens, L. Vincze, B. Vekemans, A. Aerts, F. Adams, K.W. Jones and A. Knöchel 
87 
Particle induced Xray emission a quantitative technique suitable for microanalysis. 
K. Malmqvist 
117 
Cathodoluminescence microscopy and spectroscopy of semiconductors and wide bandgap insulating materials. 
J. F. Bresse, G. Rémond and B. Akamatsu 
135 
Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF SIMS) 
P. Bertrand and L. T. Weng 
167 
Three dimensional nanoanalysis with the tomographic atom probe.

D. Blavette, A. Bigot, C. Schmuck, F. Danoix and P. Auger 
183 
Microanalysis at atomic resolution. 
S.J. Pennycook, D.E. Jesson, N.D. Browning and M.F. Chisholm 
195 
Electron transmission coefficient for oblique angle of incidence. M. Andrae, P. Klein, K. Röhrbacher and J. Wernisch 217
Depth distribution function for oblique angle of incidence. M. Andrae, K. Röhrbacher, P. Klein and J. Wernisch 225
Simulation of EDS spectra using X RES software. M. Aouine, C. Esnouf and T. Epicier 233
On the use of the Ge La line in thin Xray microanalysis of Si_{1x}Ge_{x}/Si heterostructures. A. Armigliato, T. Lewis and R. Rosa 241
Computer simulations of the Xray intensity distribution from submicron particles embedded in a matrix. A. Berner and I. Levin 251
Determination of rare earth elements in biological and mineral apatite by EPMA and LAMP ICP MS. S. Chenery, C.T. Williams, T.A. Elliott, P.L. Forey and L. Werdelin 259
Quantitative analysis of the compound layer of plasma nitrided pure iron. J. D'Haen, M. D'Olieslaeger, L. De Schepper and L.M. Stals 271
Correction of the edge effect in Auger electron microscopy. L. Frank and F. Matejka 279
Lowenergy imaging of nonconductive surfaces in SEM. L. Frank, M. Zadrazil and I. Müllerová 289
Investigation of the bonding mechanism of glass ceramic layers on metal alloys. M. Frigge and G. Völksch 299
Monte Carlo method for quantitative analysis of bulk and layered samples. O. Gedeon, V. Hulínský, K. Jurek and M. Simeckov 307
SIMS linescan profiling of chemically bevelled semiconductors: a method of overcoming ion beam induced segregation in depth profiling. C. M. Hsu and D.S. McPhail 317
Experimental verification of theoretical models simulating the temperature increase in EPMA of glass. V. Hulínský, K. Jurek and O. Gedeon 325
Quantitation of mineral elements of different fruit pollen grains. M.J. Bucsek, J. Nyék, Z. Szabó and A. Kádár 333
Electron beam induced migration of alkali ions in silica glass. K. Jurek, V. Hulínský and O. Gedeon 339
Application of the Boltzmann transport equation in the thickness determination of thin films. G. Kaltzas, N. Glezos, E. Valamontes and A.G. Nassiopoulos 349
Characterisation of the shape of microparticles via fractal and Fourier analyses of scanning electron microscope images. V.V. Kindratenko, P. Van Espen, B.A. Treiger and R.E. Van Grieken 355
Calculation of the surface ionisation using analytical models of electron backscattering. P. Klein, M. Andrae, K. Röhrbacher and J. Wernisch 363
Thickness determination of thin insulating layers. P. Klein, K. Röhrbacher, M. Andrae and J. Wernisch 377
High energy and angular resolution dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry. A.A. Kosyachkov 391
EPMA and mass spectrometry of soil and grass containing radioactivity from the nuclear accident at Chernobyl. O. Lefèvre, M. Betti, L. Koch and C.T. Walker 399
Application of a new Monte Carlo simulation algorithm to electron probe microanalysis. X. Llovet, A. Riveros and F. Salvat 409
Topography development on single crystal MgO under ion beam bombardment. N.J. Montgomery and D.S. McPhail 419
Determination of SPM tip shape using polystyrene latex balls. P. Nagy, G.I. Mark and E. Balazs 425
Combined characterisation of nanostructures by AEM and STM V.P. Oleshko, R.H. Gijbels, W.A. Jacob and M.V. Alfimov 436
Study of quasi fractal many particle systems and percolation networks by zero loss spectroscopic imaging, electron energy loss spectroscopy and digital image analysis. V.P. Oleshko, V.V. Kindratenko, R.H. Gijbels, P.J.M. Van Espen and W.A. Jacob 443
Calculation of bremsstrahlung spectra for multilayer samples. A. Pfeiffer, C. Schiebl and J. Wernisch 453
Thickness measurement of thin films by EPMA: Influence of F(0), Mac and substrate. P. Pölt and B. Stöckl 463
A simple procedure to check the spectral response of an EDX detector. M. Procop 473
Virtual WDS. S.J.B. Reed and A. Buckley 479
Monte Carlo simulation program with a free configuration of specimen geometry and detector geometries. L. Reimer, M. Kässens and L. Wiese 485
Barriers to energy dispersive spectrometry with low energy Xrays. D. Rickerby 493
Measurements of Ga_{1x}Al_{x}As layers on GaAs with EDS. K. Röhrbacher, P. Klein, M. Andrae and J. Wernisch 501
The relative intensity factor for La radiation considering the different mass absorption of La and Lb radiation. K. Röhrbacher, M. Andrae, P. Klein and J. Wernisch 507
Determination of the solubility of cerium in BaTiO_{3} by quantitative WDS electron probe microanalysis. Z. Samardzija, M. Ceh, D. Markovec and D. Kolar 517
Simulation of Xray diffraction profiles of gradually relaxed epilayers. A. Sanz Hervás, E.J. Abril, M. Aguilar, G. de Benito, C. Llorente and M. Lopez 525
Monte Carlo simulation of electron scattering for arbitrary 2D structures using a modified Quadtree geometry discretization. C.O. Schiebl, A. Pfeiffer, H.W. Wagner, W.S.M. Werner and H. Stippel 533
Chemical bond characterisation of nanostructures by EELS. R. Schneider, J. Woltersdorf and A. Röder 545
Local determination of carbon by combining Beta autoradiography and electron microprobe analysis. V.G. Senin and S.N. Shilobreeva 553
The check of the elastic scattering model in Monte Carlo simulation. V. Stary 559
True colour Xray vision for electron microscopy and microanalysis. P.J. Statham 573
Determination of the oxidation states of Nb by Auger electron spectroscopy. Z. Tass and G. Horvath 581
Study by SIMS of the 54^{Cr} and ^{18}O diffusion in Cr_{2}O_{3} and in Cr_{2}O_{3} a scales. S.C. Tsai, A.M. Huntz, C. Dolin and C. Monty 587
Comparison of back foil scanning Xray microfluorescence and electron probe Xray microanalysis for the elemental characterisation of thin coatings. E. Valamontes and A.G. Nassiopoulos 597
Electron probe Xray microanalysis of coatings. E. Valamontes and A.G. Nassiopoulos 605
Analysis of layers: Xray maps of change in thickness obtained by electron microprobe. D. Viale and G. Petitgand 611
Comparison of simulated and experimental Auger intensities of Au, Pt, Ni and Si in absolute units. H.W. Wagner, C.O. Schiebl and W.S.M. Werner 623
Practical aspects and applications of EPMA at low electron energies. P. Willich and R. Bethke 631
Oxidation and reduction processes of Be/BeO induced by electrons. P. Zanel and H. Hammer 639